by Paula Kurtzweil
If you haven't added "DV" to your vocabulary yet, you probably
will before long.
It stands for Daily Value, a new dietary reference value
to help consumers use food label information to plan a healthy overall
DVs actually comprise two sets of reference values for
nutrients: Daily Reference Values, or DRVs, and Reference Daily Intakes,
or RDIs. But these two sets are "behind the scenes" in food
labeling; only the Daily Value term will appear on the label to make label
reading less confusing.
In fact, said Christine Lewis, Ph.D., a registered dietitian
and director of the division of technical evaluation in FDA's Office of
Food Labeling, the Daily Value term is the only one of the terms that
will be used in the government's food labeling education campaign. "The
DV term is the one we expect consumers and professionals to use,"
FDA-regulated products must begin using the Daily Value
as the basis for declaring nutrient content by May 8, 1994. U.S. Department
of Agriculture-regulated products--meat and poultry--have until July 6,
The move to Daily Values is due in large part to the
Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. Among other things, the
law requires nutrition label information to be conveyed in a way that
enables the public to observe and comprehend the information readily and
to understand its relative significance in the context of a total daily
According to Lewis, the DV does that in two ways: First,
it serves as a basis for declaring on the label the percent of the Daily
Value for each nutrient that a serving of the food provides.
For example, the Daily Value for fat, based on a 2,000-calorie
diet, is 65 grams (g). A food that has 13 g of fat per serving would state
on the label that the "percent Daily Value" for fat is 20 percent.
Second, it provides a basis for thresholds that define
descriptive words for nutrient content, called descriptors, such as "high
fiber" and "low fat." For example, the descriptor "high
fiber" can be used if a serving of food provides 20 percent or more
of the Daily Value for fiber--that is, 5 g or more.
What it is not intended to do is tell people what amounts
of nutrients they should eat every day.
"They're not recommended intakes," Lewis said.
"They're really just reference points to help people get some kind
of perspective on what their overall daily dietary needs should be."
Although they won't show up on the label, DRVs and RDIs
have an important regulatory role. They serve as the basis for calculating
percent Daily Values.
DRVs are for nutrients for which no set of standards
previously existed, such as fat and cholesterol. RDIs, on the other hand,
replace the term "U.S. RDAs" (Recommended Daily Allowances),
which were introduced in 1973 as a reference value for vitamins, minerals
and protein in voluntary nutrition labeling. Despite the name change,
the actual values (except the value for protein) will remain the same--at
least for the time being. FDA will consider revising these values in the
U.S. RDAs should not be confused with RDAs. The latter
are short for Recommended Dietary Allowances, which are set by the National
Academy of Sciences. FDA used the RDAs as the basis for setting U.S. RDAs
(now called RDIs).
The confusion caused by the similarity of those terms
was one of the reasons for the switch to RDI.
"The comments we received about the proposed name
change generally agreed that there was a need to change the terminology,"
Lewis said. "People reported that it caused problems both in consumer
education and with professional communication."
DRVs for the energy-producing nutrients (fat, carbohydrate,
protein, and fiber) are based on the number of calories consumed per day.
For labeling purposes, 2,000 calories has been established as the reference
for calculating percent Daily Values. This level was chosen, in part,
because many health experts say it approximates the maintenance calorie
requirements of the group most often targeted for weight reduction: postmenopausal
Also, unlike the 2,350-calorie reference that FDA used
in its proposal, 2,000 calories is a rounded number, which makes it easier
for consumers to calculate their individual nutrient needs.
The label will include--at least on larger packages--a
footnote on the nutrition panel in which daily values for selected nutrients
for both a 2,000- and a 2,500-calorie diet are listed. Manufacturers have
the option of listing daily values for other calorie levels, if label
space allows and as long as the Daily Values for the other two levels
are listed, too.
Whatever the calorie level, DRVs for the energy-producing
nutrients are always calculated as follows:
fat based on 30 percent of calories
saturated fat based on 10 percent of calories
carbohydrate based on 60 percent of calories
protein based on 10 percent of calories. (The DRV for protein applies
only to adults and children over 4. RDIs for protein for special groups
have been established.)
fiber based on 11.5 g of fiber per 1,000 calories.
Thus, someone who consumes 3,000 calories a day--a teenage boy, for example--would
have a recommended intake for fat of 100 g or less per day. [0.30 times
3,000 = 900; 900 (calories) divided by 9 (calories per g of fat) = 100
g]. See the Counting Calories chart (34K PDF file) for an illustration
of how to apply the nutrition label information to your individual needs.
The DRVs for cholesterol, sodium and potassium, which do not contribute
calories, remain the same whatever the calorie level.
Because of the links between certain nutrients and certain
diseases, DRVs for some nutrients represent the uppermost limit that is
considered desirable. Eating too much fat or cholesterol, for example,
has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Too much sodium
can heighten the risk of high blood pressure in some people.
Therefore, the label will show DVs for fats and sodium
total fat: less than 65 g
saturated fat: less than 20 g
cholesterol: less than 300 mg (milligrams)
sodium: less than 2,400 mg
Summary information on DRVs is available both in table format and in chart
form (for browsers that do not support tables).
RDIs Replace U.S. RDAs
Unlike DRVs, which are a new concept, many consumers
may already have a good idea of what the RDIs are. That's because the
RDIs (the former U.S. RDAs used by FDA) have been around for almost 20
years as the established estimated values for vitamins, minerals and protein.
(See table or chart, for browsers that do not support tables.)
The provisions of the Nutrition Labeling and Education
Act and the Dietary Supplement Act of 1992 require FDA to retain these
estimated values for at least another year.
Although consumers will continue to see vitamins and
minerals expressed as percentages on the label, these percentages now
refer to the Daily Values.
Getting to Know DVs
Like any new concept, DVs may take some getting used
to but, through education and practice, FDA and USDA believe it soon will
become second nature to many consumers.
"As more and more new labels make their way into
the marketplace," Lewis said, "people will gradually become
familiar with the DV term and be able to use the information effectively."
"I think consumers are going to find it very helpful,"
Paula Kurtzweil is a member of FDA's public affairs staff.
Alphabet Soup Made Appetizing
DVs (Daily Values): a new dietary reference term that will appear on the
food label. It is made up of two sets of references, DRVs and RDIs.
DRVs (Daily Reference Values): a set of dietary references that applies
to fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, sodium,
RDIs (Reference Daily Intakes): a set of dietary references
based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances for essential vitamins and
minerals and, in selected groups, protein. The name "RDI" replaces
the term "U.S. RDA."
RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances): a set of estimated
nutrient allowances established by the National Academy of Sciences. It
is updated periodically to reflect current scientific knowledge.